tournament were recorded as logfiles, which can be played back with
Soccersever. Screen capture movies of segments of selected playback
are available here to give you a taste of what the class tournament
using Soccerserver looks like, without you having to download and
install the Soccerserver.
All screen capture
movies below are RealVideos, which require RealVideo player:
Samurai vs. Betir
Sachin* vs. Samurai
Kar vs. Samurai
Kar vs. Betir
Sachin* vs. Kar
Sachin* vs. Betir
students in the Sachin group forgot to change the default name
(Biter) to Sachin, so it shows up as Biter in the log files.
Below are the
authors' comments on the above student teams' design and strategies
in programming their soccer players' behaviors.
- The Betir
team was the champion and most sophisticated team. They employ
a flexible 1-4-3-2 formation where the players where allowed to
move out of their assigned positions under certain circumstances.
For example, all players go after the ball if it is close enough,
and the offensive players are allowed to go back to the midfield
if the ball is in the defensive side. Their most significant advantage
was the ability to make successful long passes. This requires
offensive players to stay "open" and defensive players
to know the offensive players' locations. This ability was not
an explicitly programmed behavior but arose out of the interactions
of their simpler zone and passing behaviors.
- The Samurai
team uses five regions: defense with passing, defense with no
passing, center with passing, offense with passing, and offense
with no passing. Passing is prohibited in the sensitive areas
near the goal in order to minimize the possibility of losing the
ball. They also divided their players into four roles: Goalie,
defense, center, and forward. Each role is given different behaviors.
The forwards and centers are allowed to ignore the regions and,
as such, provided a reactive component to their strategy which
helped the team achieve second place on the tournament.
- The Sachin
team uses seven overlapping zones. They players were made to stay
within their zone. The overlap allows the team to react quickly
to unforeseen circumstances and provided some flexibility. Unfortunately,
the fact that the zones are fixed reduces the team's ability to
go after the ball in some circumstances. They also created the
roles of defender, midback, midforward, and forward. The players'
role remains fixed during the game. Their passes were made more
successful because of their technique of having the players "yell"
their position upon request from the player with the ball. This
allows the player with the ball to make more precise passes.
- The KAR
team relied mostly on behaviors to pass the ball and intercept
the ball. The players were given some rules of thumb about when
to pass the ball. When a ball is passed the kicker yells the receiver's
name and a set of coordinates in the hopes of alerting the receiver.
The players only pass the ball when they have an receiver that
is not blocked on when they are very close to their goal. The
individual behaviors in this team were too few and too simple
for interesting team behaviors to emerge.
If you are interested
in seeing the full playback, you can download the logfiles from
the authors' web site. You also need to download and install the
Links to the author's Multiagent Systems course:
Link to the RoboCup Soccer Simulator download site.